LATEST UPDATE: 26 March 2003
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American Air Mail Catalog (USA) [abbr.] 2.
Australian Air Mail Catalog (Australia) [abbr.]
Associação Brasileira dos Comerciantes Filatélicos
(Brazilian Stamp Dealers Association) [Brazil] [abbr.]
Associaçâo de Comerciantes Filatelicos de Portugal
(Portuguese Stamp Dealers Association) [Portugal] [abbr.].
bidder participating in a public auction, but personally not present
at the auction. 2. Book Bidder. 3. Order Bidder. 4.
Bidder represented by an Auction Agent.
Association Internationale des Experts en Philatélie (International
Association of Philatelic Experts) (Internationaler Verband der
Philatelistischen Prüfer [Germany]) [abbr.]
AIJP: Association Internationale
des Journalistes Philatéliques *
(International Association of Philatelic Journalists) [abbr.].
ANFIL: Asociacion Nacional de
Empresarios de Filatelia y Numismatica de España (Spanish
Philatelic and Numismatic Dealers' Association) [Spain] [abbr.].
American Philatelic Expertizing Service (State College, PA, U.S.A.)
APHV: Allgemeiner Postwertzeichen-Händler-Verband
e.V. (German Stamp Dealers Association) [Germany] [abbr.].
APPI: Asosiasi Pedagang Prangko
Indonesia (Indonesian Stamp
Dealers Association) [Indonesia] [abbr.].
American Philatelic Society [abbr.].
Internationale des Editeurs de Catalogues
de Timbres-Poste et de Publications Philatéliques (International
Association of Postage Stamp Catalogs and Philatelic Publications
Editors) [France] [abbr.].
ASDA: American Stamp Dealers Association [abbr.].
"As Is" Auction Lot: An auction
lot designated as being sold without warranty, with the auction
lot not being returnable to the auctioneer for any reason.
ASNP / VSBH: Association Suisse
des Négociants en Philatelie
(Swiss Stamp Dealers Association) [Switzerland] [abbr.]
Russian Stamp Dealers' Association [Russia] [abbr.].
Agent: A representative designated by an Absentee Bidder
or a bidder requiring anonymity during an auction (the client),
and authorized to represent the client during the public auction
Bundesverbandes des Deutschen Briefmarkenhandels (German Philatelic
Auctioneers Association) [Germany] [abbr.]
Book: The auction house data base composed of bids submitted
by Absentee Bidders on the lots offered at auction, with the Bid
Book being maintained manually or by electronic means.
Against the Ceiling": see: "Running Up the Bidder".
Against the Curtains": see: "Running Up the Bidder".
Increments: The series of regularly increasing currency
intervals called by the auctioneer during the bidding process for
Circle: 1. A group composed of two or more participants
agreeing either not to bid against each other during a public auction,
or to keep bids below a certain pre-agreed amount. 2. Crossing
Paddle: The card or similar item with an number assigned
specifically for the bidder registered with the auctioneer, and
used during the auction to denote active participation
in the bidding procedures during the sale.
Rigging: see: 1. Bidding Circle. 2. Crossing
Off. 3. Shill.
Bidder: see: Absentee Bidder.
Bid: 1. Bids entrusted by an Absentee Bidder to an auctioneer.
2. Bids to be executed on behalf of an Absentee Bidder during
the course of the public auction.
In" Lot: 1. An auction lot announced by the auctioneer
as remaining unsold because the Stated Reserve or Hidden Reserve
for the lot was not received by the auctioneer from the Book or
floor clientele. 2. an Unsold Lot. 3. a "Returned
British Philatelic Association (Great Britain) [abbr.]
Certificate: B.P.A. Expertizing Ltd. Certificate (Great
Tie" Bid: A bid on an auction lot allowing the auctioneer
bidding on behalf of an absentee client, or an auction agent bidding
for a ckient to increase the bid by one standard increment, if incessary,
in the attempt to purchase a lot during the public auction procedures.
see: Expertizer/Expertizing Committee.
Fee: see: Buyer's Premium.
Premium: 1. The percentage premium added to the Hammer
Price of a lot, and retained by the auctioneer as part of the commission
for selling the lot. 2. the Buyer's Fee. 3. the "Tip"
Bid: The practice whereby a bidder instructs an auctioneer
or auction agent to purchase a lot regardless of the ultimate Hammer
Price. "Buy Bids" are seldom accepted by auctioneers and
auction agents, and are normally executed only when a specified
bidding agreement is made with the client previous to the sale.
The maximum commission an Auction Agent invoices a client for
representation at a public auction [slang].
Number: 1. A designated number or set of numbers from
a standard postage stamp or postal history reference universally
identifying a philatelic item. 2. Katalog- nummer [Germany].
3. Nombre d'Catalogue [France]. 4. Numero Catalogo
Numero de Catálogo [Spain].
Chambre Syndicale Française des Négociants et Experts
en Philatélie (French Stamp Dealers and Philatelic Expertizers
Association) [France] [abbr.].
Lot: 1. An auction lot comprising of a mounted or unmounted
country, topical, etc. collection, which normally is viewed previous
to bidding. 2. Briefmarken- sammlung [Germany]. 3.
Collection de Timbres-Poste [France]. 4. Collezione
Francobolli [Italy]. 5. Colección de Sellos
Authority: see: Expertizer/Expertizing Committee.
1. The physical state description of a postage stamp or postal
history item offered at auction. 2. Erhaltung [Germany].
3. Condition [France]. 4. Condizione [Italy].
5. Condición [Spain].
of Sale: The "Conditions of Sale" or "Terms of Sale"
printed in an auction catalog, and which are the legal documentation
binding the buyer purchasing at the auction; terms normally are
subject to verbal amendment(s) at the time of the auction.
Contract: The legal and binding signed document of agreement
between the auctioneer and the owner of the philatelic properties
being consigned to the auctioneer.
1. A postage stamp or postal history item which has been
forged, with the quality of the forgery ranging from the easily
determinable crude types, to the sophisticated type requiring Expertizing
procedures to determine genuinity. 2. Fälschung [Germany].
3. Contrefait [France]. 4. Contraffatto [Italy].
5. Falsificación [Spain]
Postal: 1. A forgery of a contemporary postage stamp
produced to defraud a postal administration of the postage used
for mailing; very often considered a collectable item for the specialist.
2. Fälschung Postalisch [Germany]. 3.
Contrafait Postal [France]. 4. Falso Postale [Italy].
5. Falsa Postal [Spain].
Chambre Professionnelle Belge des Négociants en
Timbre-Poste (Belgium Stamp Dealers Association) [Belgium]
Off: see: Bidding Circle.
CSDA: 1. Canadian Stamp Dealers
Association [Canada]. 2. Republic of China Stamp Dealers'
Association [Taiwan, Republic of China] [abbr.].
Danmarks Friærkehandlerforening (Danish Stamp Dealers
Association) [Denmark] [abbr.].
1. The stamp gum condition described when the original gum
of an unused postage stamp has been deleteriously affected by one
or more handling or mounting procedures, to include heavy hinging,
gum glazing from mounts, etc. 2. Gestörengummi [Germany].
3. Troublé Gomme [France]. 4. Gomma
Goma Molestarada [Spain].
The valuation of a lot based on the auctioneer's or consignor's
experiences, and not sourced from any catalog or other standard
Suggested Bid. 3. Schätzpreis, Bewertung [Germany].
4. Évaluation [France].
Valutazione [Italy]. 6. Valor Estimación [Spain].
1. A postage stamp or postal history item which has been opinionated
by a Competent Authority as being genuine, and which is accompanied
by the expertizer's signature on the item, or by a signed photo
certificate. 2. Geprüft, Signiert [Germany].
Expertisé [France]. 4. Firmato [Italy].
5. Periciado [Spain].
Committee: 1. The mutually-agreed upon Competent Authority
recognized as being qualified to certify the identification, authenticity,
quality attributes and/or other status of philatelic materials purchased
at auction. 2. Bundesprüfer [Germany]
The time period allowed by the auctioneer for certification
of lots purchased at auction by an Expertizer/Expertizing Committee.
A phrase utilized by some auctioneers to denote that a lot will
hammered down momentarily, and normally used to alert bidders who
may have missed a lot of possible interest.
Tales": False entries included in published or verbal
Prices Realized [slang].
Bid Price: see: Hammer Price.
Fees: 1. Payments from an auction house given
to individuals providing means and/or arrangements for the selling
of philatelic properties by the auctioneer.
Introductory Commission (IC) [Great Britain].
Federation Internationale de Philatelie (International Federation
of Philately) [Switzerland] [abbr.].
FNCFI: Federazione Nazionale
Commercianti Filatelici Italiani
(Italian Federation of Philatelic Dealers) [Italy] [abbr.].
Bidder": see: "Running Up the Bidder".
German Philatelic Society (USA) [abbr.].
German Philatelic Society Certificate [abbr.].
Greek Stamp Dealers Association [Greece] [abbr.].
1. A marking normally attributed to a recognized Competent
Authority expertizer or expertizing committee applied to the reverse
of a postage stamp, or the front and/or reverse of a cover, to assign
a genuinity status to the item; the marking may be in form of pencilled
initials or a name, or a small, non-obtrusive, inked handstamp which
is not visible on the face of a postage stamp (Note: A Guarantee
Mark is not to be confused with an "Owners Mark",
which is a similar format marking applied by the items owner
to brand the property as belonging to them). 2. Garantiezeichen
[Germany]. 3. Signe dGarantie [France].
4. Segno di Garanzia [Italy]. 5. Marca de Garantia
1. The final bid acknowledged and accepted by the auctioneer
as the winning high bid successfully purchasing the lot being offered
at auction. 2. the Final Bid Price. 3. the Knockdown
Reserve: 1. The non-stated minimum price the seller of
the lot will accept, with bids received below the Hidden Reserve
deemed as being unacceptable. 2. the Non-Stated
1. The International Federation of Stamp Dealers'
Associations. 2. Des Internationalen Dachverbands de
Briefmarkenhändlerverbände [Germany]. 3. La Fédération
Internationale des Chambres Syndicales des Négociants
en Timbre-Poste [France]. 4. La Federación Internacional
de Asociaciones de Filatélicos [Spain, Latin America]
[Great Britain] see: Finders Fee.
IPTA: Irish Philatelic Traders'
Association [Ireland] [abbr.].
ISDA: 1. Israel Stamp Dealers'
Association [Israel]. 2. Indian
Stamp Dealers' Association [India] [abbr.].
Japanese Stamp Dealers Association (Japan) [abbr.].
see: Hammer Price.
Bids: The maximum amount of money an absentee bidder
is willing to spend at any one specific auction.
The philatelic property offered as an individual entity, and
numbered as such in the auction catalog.
Description: The auctioneer's identification of the material
being offered at auction.
Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International (USA) [abbr.].
Mexico Elmhurst Philatelic Society International Certificate [abbr.].
Michel Postage Stamp Catalog (Germany) [abbr.].
Bid: 1. The auction catalog stated minimum price
the auctioneer will accept for the lot. 2. the Starting Bid.
Norsk Frimerkehandler Forening (Norwegian Stamp Dealers
Association) [Norway] [abbr.].
see: Hidden Reserve.
Nederlandsche Vereeniging van Postzegelhandelaren (Netherlands Stamp
New Zealand Stamp Dealers' Association [New Zealand] [abbr.].
Österreichischer Briefmarken- und Münzen- Händlerverband
(Austrian Stamp and Coin Dealers Association) [Austria] [abbr.].
1. The beginning selling price of the lot as announced by the
auctioneer indicating the price at which the bidding commences.
The Opening Price can represent a bid one increment over the second
highest Book Bid, the highest Book Bid, or the Reserve Price for
the lot. 2. Ausgebot, Angebot [Germany]. 3.
Enchére, Début [France]. 4. Offerta
Iniziale [Italy]. 5. Oferta Inicial [Spain].
see: Expertizer/Expertizing Committee.
Bidder: see: Absentee Bidder.
PH, Photo: Standard auction catalog abbreviations indicating
that a lot or a portion of a lot has been illustrated.
see: Bidding Paddle.
of the Arm" Bidding: 1. The floor bidding procedure whereby
the participant denotes the intention of bidding by raising the
bidding paddle, or equivalent, throughout the bidding process, without
lowering the instrument during the calling of the bidding increments.
2. "Statue of Liberty" bidding [slang].
The auctioneer's terminology designating that a lot has been
hammered down, but that the lot remains unsold because the final
bid did not reach the Hidden Reserve.
Philatelic Foundation (New York) [abbr.].
Philatelic Foundation Certificate [abbr.].
on Request (POR): 1. Rarely used in the U.S.A., the terminology
stated in an auction catalog when designating that a lot' s value
is sourced by contacting the auctioneer for the estimated price.
2. Preis auf Anfrage [Germany]. 3. Prix sur
Demande [France]. 4. Prezzo a Richiestra [Italy].
5. Precio sobre Demanda [Spain].
Realized: A published listing of the prices realized
on individual lots sold during an auction, usually designated as
being either the Hammer Price amount, or the Hammer Price + Buyer's
1. The origin and/or previous owner(s) of the philatelic
material being offered at auction, usually attributing ownership
to a prestigious collector or institution. 2. the designation
for this type of philatelic material (ex-Ishikawa, ex-Farouk Collection,
Professional Stamp Experts (Miami, FL, U.S.A.) [abbr.].
Certificate: Professional Stamp Experts Certificate [abbr.].
Pul Tuccarlari Dernegi (Turkish Stamp Dealers Association)
Philatelic Traders Society (U.K.) [abbr.].
1. The catalog stated or non-stated minimum price acceptable
by the auctioneer or the owner of the lot. 2. the Stated
Reserve. 3. the Hidden Reserve.
to the Owner" Lot: see: "Bought In" Lot.
Royal Philatelic Society, London, London (Great Britain) [abbr.].
Certificate: Royal Philatelic Society, London, Certificate
Up the Bidder": 1.
The practice designed to artificially create higher realizations
for an auction lot by "accepting" bids from non-existent bidders.
"Bidding Against the Ceiling" [slang]. 3. "Bidding
Against the Curtains" [slang].
bidding against a "Ghost Bidder" [slang].
: South African Philatelic Dealers' Association
(Republic of South Africa) [abbr.].
Scott Postage Stamp Catalogue (USA) [abbr.].
see: Estimated Value.
Commission: The percentage or other pre-determined commission
deducted from the Hammer Price of the lot, and retained by the auctioneer
as part of the commission for selling the lot.
Sveriges Frimärkshandlareförbund (Swedish Stamp Dealers
Association) [Sweden] [abbr.].
Stanley Gibbons Stamp Catalogue (Great Britain) [abbr.].
A person employed by or representing an unscrupulous auctioneer
or owner of the items being offered at public auction, and who creates
artificially higher prices for lots sold at public sales.
Sociedad de Comerciantes Filatélicos de la
República Argentina (Argentina Stamp Dealers Society)
to the Book: 1. The auctioneer's terminology designating
that a lot has been hammered down to an Absentee Bidder represented
by the auctioneer. 2. Sold to the Order.
to the Order: see: Sold to the Book.
Suomen Postimerkkikauppiaiden Liito RY (Finland Stamp
Dealers Association) [Finland] [abbr.].
Personnel employed by the auctioneer to monitor the public auction
floor bidders, and to point out to the auctioneer any active bidder
who may have been overlooked by the auctioneer.
Bid: see: Minimum Bid.
of Liberty" Bidding: see: "Paralysis of the Arm" Bidding
Bid: see: Estimated Value.
One or more identical high bids received for the same lot offered
of Sale: see: Conditions of Sale.
see: Buyer's Premium.
An auction without Hidden Reserves or Stated Reserves selling lots
for whatever is offered by the bidders.
Lot: see: "Bought In" Lot.
(Value Added Tax):
tax payable on the Hammer Price + the Buyer's Premium for auction
lots purchased from auctioneers resident within the countries being
members of the European Union (EU). VAT is not payable for lots
delivered to addresses outside of the EU community.
Lot: An auction lot removed from the sale for reasons
that could include, but are not limited to, the following reasons:
misdescription or misidentification, the lot having been lost or
misplaced, or the lot not having realized the reserve price.
Catalogue Yvert et Tellier (France) [abbr.].